Harmen Verbruggen was Dean of the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration at the VU University Amsterdam until 2014. He is past director of the Institute for Environmental Studies at the same university. In 1994, he was appointed Professor of International Environmental Economics. His major field of specialization is the interplay between development economics, international economic relations and environmental studies. His research interests cover the interrelationships between environment and international trade, the international coordination of environmental policies, environmental policy instruments and clean technology. He has also worked on issues regarding indicators for economic growth.